Traditional, hierarchical views of leadership have been under development and stress, increased complexities of the contemporary systems requires a process orientation. Leadership theory must transition to new perspectives that account for the complex adaptive needs of organizations. We advocate that leadership (as opposed to leaders) can be seen as a complex dynamic process that emerges through involved people and ideas. We introduce the concepts of complexity, situation and adaptive leadership. We show how these dynamics can be placed in practice through the introduction of the Rotterdam Central District case study; through which important insights about the nature of leadership and its outcomes in organizational fields are expressed.
The role leadership in Urban Management; management in the built environment involves acting in a goal-directed manner. It does not represent random activity but rather activity with a purpose and a direction. This means that the management of products and processes in and inter organisations in the domains of the built environment is focused on, among others, goal realization and effectiveness. What’s more, it is focused on problems not in a scientific way, but in practice. And: problems are not objective; they are “in the eye of the beholder”. Sometimes a manager wants to solve the problem, sometimes he can’t, and sometimes he applies strategies to master the problem. Therefore, the manager’s orientation is not only to analyze the problem, but also to design solutions and implement the measures to reach his (new) goals. Goal-oriented and instrumental are key words in the domain of management in the built environment.